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Find the odd one out reflection neutralization refraction dispersion

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A saturation theory for toroidal ITG turbulence based on zonal-flow-catalyzed transfer to stable modes successfully recovers scalings of the heat flux with the zonal flow damping rate and plasma beta observed in gyrokinetic simulations. Here the theory is extended to include the physics of the instability threshold in temperature gradient by retaining the appropriate magnetic drift effects in the fluid model. The theory has a quasilinear factor with a flux threshold at the linear value. However, a factor proportional to the inverse triplet correlation time makes the flux very small above this threshold when nonlinear energy transfer is nearly resonant.

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US6767594B1 - Polarizer and liquid crystal display element - Google Patents

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A saturation theory for toroidal ITG turbulence based on zonal-flow-catalyzed transfer to stable modes successfully recovers scalings of the heat flux with the zonal flow damping rate and plasma beta observed in gyrokinetic simulations. Here the theory is extended to include the physics of the instability threshold in temperature gradient by retaining the appropriate magnetic drift effects in the fluid model.

The theory has a quasilinear factor with a flux threshold at the linear value. However, a factor proportional to the inverse triplet correlation time makes the flux very small above this threshold when nonlinear energy transfer is nearly resonant. After a higher threshold in temperature gradient the flux begins to increase at a rate proportional to the gradient.

Both features are qualitatively consistent with recent gyrokinetic observations, which show a smooth upturn in flux at the nonlinear threshold and no indication of bifurcation or tertiary instability. The separation of linear and nonlinear thresholds Dimits shift is governed by resonance broadening effects. When these arise from finite Larmor radius the shift is small, but it increases to realistic values if the resonance is broadened by nonlinear eddy damping effects.

Two requirements for realistic modeling of limit cycle oscillations involving ITG turbulence and zonal flows are the inclusion of large-scale stable modes, which are critical for saturation and its scalings, and the energy conserving coupling that links the instability with stable modes through the zonal flow.

Models that satisfy these criteria involve wavenumber truncations in the eigenmode decomposition, the simplest of which is a three-wavenumber truncation. We examine truncations that preserve coupling topology between the turbulence and zonal flows, which respectively occupy 2D and 1D spectral domains, showing that this consideration affects the amplitude ratio of turbulence and zonal flows. Truncated models with time dependence are shown to naturally produce predator-prey oscillations.

The relation between characteristic oscillation times, phasing and the parameters including the wavenumbers are investigated. Furthermore, the dependence on the zonal flow strength of the characteristic oscillation times and the energy transfer before and after saturation are tested. Dissipation, which breaks the conjugate symmetry of unstable and stable modes, is also examined to further probe saturation physics. Evidence from simulations of ITG turbulence in tokamaks, RFPs, and stellarators suggests that both the slab and the toroidal ITG branches are saturated by three-wave coupling to stable modes, through different intermediaries.

In the former the intermediary is a marginally stable mode, while in the latter it is a zonal flow. In a fluid model, this difference is consistent with the elimination of parallel flow physics by strong ballooning, which removes the marginal branch, leaving zonal flows as the best channel for maximizing the triplet correlation time.

However, zonal flows and marginal modes coexist in both the slab and toroidal limits in the more general 3-field model that includes parallel flows. We study general saturation physics in this model via parameter orderings that access both limits and allow analytic expressions for the complex mode frequencies and eigenfunctions.

This enables a determination of the relative roles played by triplet correlation time and eigenmode overlap in selecting the dominant saturation channel and the role of subdominant instabilities. These results are applied to simulations in MST and quasi-symmetric stellarator configurations to establish an understanding of the physics of dominant energy-transfer channels. Multi-ion species plasma that is immersed in a magnetic field features distinct collisional timescales when external forces are applied to it.

We identify and explore intermediate timescales and describe metastable states of such a plasma. In particular, we identify and discuss the temperature gradients that arise in the plasma. We compare plasma to a neutral gas, where related physics, i. Geyko and N. Fisch, Phys. E 94, Kolmes, I. Ochs, and N. Plasmas 25, The Dimits shift is the shift between the linear threshold of the drift-wave primary instability and the actual onset of turbulent transport, and is attributed to the formation of zonal flows ZFs.

We calculate this shift within the modified Terry--Horton [1] and modified Hasegawa--Wakatani [2] model. We show that these modes can be modeled as quantum harmonic oscillators with complex frequencies, so the growth rate can be calculated analytically and the result agrees with numerical eigenvalues. Notably, the TI mode with the largest rate is the analytic continuation of the Kelvin--Helmholtz mode studied recently in [4]. St-Onge, J. Plasma Phys. Numata, R. Ball, and R.

Dewar, Phys. Kobayashi and B. Rogers, Phys. Zhu, Y. Zhou, and I. Dodin, Phys. For a plasma with a collision operator that conserves energy, particle number, and momentum, the Boltzmann distribution is the state of maximum entropy. In a strongly magnetized, quiescent plasma, the motion of net charge across field lines is strongly suppressed. The addition of a constraint on net cross-field charge transport leads instead to the classic impurity pinch relation as the maximum-entropy state.

This more general derivation makes it possible to define a broad class of collision operators which will lead to the impurity pinch. We derive magnetic viscosity from simple physical arguments, where a coherent response due to shear flow builds up in the magnetic field until decorrelated by turbulence. We confirm the magnetic eddy viscosity through numerical simulations of 2D incompressible MHD.

We also consider the 3D case, and in cylindrical or spherical geometry we find a nonzero viscosity whenever there is differential rotation.

Hence, these results serve as a dynamical generalization of Ferraro's law of isorotation. The magnetic eddy viscosity leads to transport of angular momentum and may be of importance to zonal flows in astrophysical domains.

For example, it may explain recent discoveries by Juno and Cassini regarding the depth that zonal flows reach inside Jupiter and Saturn. The evolution of neoclassical tearing modes NTMs in the presence of electrostatic drift wave turbulence is investigated. In contrast with anomalous transport effect induced by turbulence on NTMs, a new mechanism that turbulence-driven current can affect the onset threshold of NTMs significantly is suggested.

Turbulence acts as a source or sink to exchange energy with NTMs. The turbulence-driven current can change the parallel current in magnetic islands and affect the evolution of NTMs, depending on the direction of turbulence intensity gradient. When the turbulence intensity gradient is negative, the turbulence-driven current enhances the onset threshold of NTMs. When the turbulence intensity gradient is positive, it can reduce or even overcome the stabilizing effect of neoclassical polarization current, leading to a small onset threshold of NTMs.

References: [1] Huishan Cai, Nucl. Old and recent experiments show that there is a direct response to the heating power of transport observed in modulated electron cyclotron heating ECH experiments both in tokamaks and stellarators, which is commonly known as non-local transport.

We show that this power dependence and its corresponding experimental observations such as the so-called hysteresis in flux [Inagaki, NF, , ] can be reproduced by broadened ECH deposition profiles. In other words, many mathematical models proposed to describe non-local transport are equivalent to an deposition effective profile in its linearized forms [vanBerkel, NF, , ].

This also connects with new insights on microwave scattering due to density fluctuations in the edge plasma which shows that in reality the deposition profiles are much broader than expected [Chellai, PRL, , ] but it is unclear if this effect is sufficient to explain non-local transport. Direct numerical simulation DNS and Large Eddy Simulation LES of homogeneous MHD turbulence under Hall and FLR effects are carried out for some combinations of the ion skin depth and the Larmor radius to the resistive scales in order to study influences of the the scales shorter than the ion skin depth and the Larmor radius to the scales longer than them.

Example to show necessity of the LES approach in numerical simulations of plasma instability and turbulence are presented[1,2]. Miura, F. Hamba, and A. Ito, "Two-fluid sub-grid-scale viscosity in nonlinear simulation of ballooning modes in a heliotron device", Nuclear Fusion 57 Horton, H. Miura, L. Drift wave turbulence is a universal phenomena in fusion plasma devices, playing a major role for energy confinement.

Associated numerical transport modelling poses a difficult task due to the strong non-linearity and chaotic behavior of the turbulence. In order to address the present excessive computational requirements, in particular the small time steps of explicit finite difference methods, a fully time-spectral method GWRM has been developed. Thus the method gains spectral accuracy in all domains whilst being free of the CFL criteria.

Successful benchmarking, employing the 2D Navier-Stokes equations, will be demonstrated for different boundary conditions. Computational results will be presented and discussed. Nordman and J. Fusion, 29, , Anisotropic thermal conduction is a diffusive process relevant to applications in plasma physics that use magnetic fields. It is well known that heat is transported more freely parallel to magnetic field lines, and it is constrained perpendicular to field lines.

In experiments, such as magneto-inertial fusion experiments, this concept can be utilized to more effectively confine heat. We have implemented anisotropic thermal conduction into the FLASH code, the multi-physics radiation magneto-hydrodynamics code developed and maintained by the Flash Center for Computational Science at the University of Chicago.

Our implementation also works with the adaptive mesh refinement in FLASH, which significantly increased the level of complexity of the thermal diffusion code. Here we present our implementation along with verification benchmarks that illustrate the effects of anisotropic thermal conduction. A blob recognition and tracking algorithm resolves the time evolution of the 3D filamentary structures, complemented by 2D and 3D conditional average sampling techniques.

As a result, the single blobs exhibit complex trajectories with non-negligible mutual interactions in between filaments and with the turbulent background plasma. On average the blob dynamics are well described by the theoretically derived scalings of blob radial velocities against their size, showing a transition from the sheath connected regime to the ideal interchange one close to the separatrix, where the blobs disconnect from the target plates.

In this work, we propose an additional mechanism for blob disconnection, namely the poloidal shear in radial EXB velocity, spontaneously arising in diverted plasmas at the X-point as the topology changes from closed to open field lines, and we compare it with the commonly accepted disconnection through high flux expansion and magnetic shear in the X-point region. The related strong self-interaction mechanism disrupts resonant 3-wave interactions involving the zonal modes.

In adiabatic electron simulations, the scaling is not as severe, owing to a weaker self-interaction mechanism at play. We also introduce a fluid model that expands upon a three-field model [C.

We employ this reduced model to investigate KBM turbulence saturation in 3D magnetic equilibria both when strong ion temperature gradients are present and as the magnetic shear is varied. Test particle EXB transport due to an infinite spectrum of drift waves in two dimensions is studied using a Hamiltonian approach, which can be reduced to a 2D mapping. Finite Larmor radius FLR effects are included taking a gyroaverage. The presence of poloidal flows is included which gives rise to transport barrier formation.

Find three consecutive integers so that the sum of the first two is seventeen more than the

A great deal of evidence suggests that light is a wave and under a wide range of circumstances, light travels in a straight line. For example, sunlight casts sharp shadows. Another example is refraction where light passes from one transparent medium into another figure 1. Such observations, has led to the ray model of light.

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Greenstein, New York, William G. Young, Lake Mohegamand Charles A. Quinn, Peekskill, N. Application July 1, Serial No. More particularly, it relates to theproduc- 7 greatly limiting their application. One current method for producing iridescence consists of a series of polishing and dipping operations. It is an advantage of the present invention that all operations are liquid coating operations, avoiding the costly polishing steps. Accordingly this invention involves a process for producing iridescence by depositing a layer of lamellae of high index of refraction on an object by a liquid coating method, such as dipping, spraying, roller coating, knife coating and printing, and subsequently depositing an interference film of plastic or resin on top of the lamellae, also by such methods. Iridescence refers to a rainbow-like play of colors, such as is seen in the soap bubble, mother-of-pearl, etc. One method of achieving this effect utilizes the principle of interference of light rays, which results in a neutralization or loss of certain wave lengths of the original white light with the consequence that a color is produced by the combination of the residual Wave lengths.

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Environmental Protection Agency, have been grouped into nine series. These nine broad cate- gories were established to facilitate further development and application of en- vironmental technology. Elimination of traditional grouping was consciously planned to foster technology transfer and a maximum interface in related fields.

EP1047550A1 - Color shifting film - Google Patents

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This invention relates generally to electrothermal printing, and more particularly to an improved printing ink to mark substrates such as paper, as well as apparatus and methods for use therewith. Traditional methods of printing utilize various types of long-run print forms such as gravure cylinders, offset plates or flexographic belts which carry a representation of the desired image the so-called "signature" suitably recorded thereon. The print form is matched with a particular type of ink having physical characteristics compatible with those of the print form, thereby facilitating cycles of proper ink uptake and ink release. For example, in gravure printing, the gravure cylinder contains an imagewise pattern of depressions, so-called "cells", that accept ink from an ink-feed roller and subsequently deposit part of the ink under immense mechanical pressure onto a printing substrate such as paper. This process generally requires low-viscosity inks having high solvent contents in order to promote the ready release of the ink from the gravure cells, even though large residual volumes of the ink will remain in the cells after these are pressed onto the print paper. Lithographic offset printing, another much-used process, generally involves aluminum plates having imagewise signatures recorded thereon, the signatures residing in rasterized ink-accepting and ink-repellent areas comprising millions of print dots.

US2922724A - Method of producing iridescence - Google Patents

Вы рассказываете ей только то, что считаете нужным. Знает ли она, что именно вы собираетесь сделать с Цифровой крепостью. - И что. Хейл понимал: то, что он сейчас скажет, либо принесет ему свободу, либо станет его смертным приговором. Он набрал в легкие воздуха. - Вы хотите приделать к Цифровой крепости черный ход.

It is known a polarizer with higher polarizing characteristics (see Application PCT Thus, when the non-polarized light is incident on a known polarizer, one For this reason the reflection index from the layer boundaries is small, and for dispersion resulting in a significant growth of value of at least one refraction index.

 - Шифровалка вот-вот взорвется, а Стратмор не отвечает на звонки. ГЛАВА 98 Халохот выбежал из святилища кардинала Хуэрры на слепящее утреннее солнце. Прикрыв рукой глаза, он выругался и встал возле собора в маленьком дворике, образованном высокой каменной стеной, западной стороной башни Гиральда и забором из кованого железа. За открытыми воротами виднелась площадь, на которой не было ни души, а за ней, вдали, - стены Санта-Круса. Беккер не мог исчезнуть, тем более так .

Find odd one out. Refraction dispersion, refraction, transformation and why

Пожилой человек вдруг поднялся и куда-то побежал, видимо, вызвать скорую. Танкадо явно терял последние силы, но по-прежнему совал кольцо прямо в лицо тучному господину. Тот протянул руку, взял Танкадо за запястье, поддерживая остававшуюся на весу руку умирающего.

Odd one out - dispersion, refraction ,spectrum, transformation​

Ведь я слишком много знаю. - Успокойся, Грег. Сирена продолжала завывать.

На нем располагался щедрый набор фирменных открыток отеля, почтовая бумага, конверты и ручки. Беккер вложил в конверт чистый листок бумаги, надписал его всего одним словом: Росио - и вернулся к консьержу.

Технология развивается в геометрической профессии, и рано или поздно алгоритмы, которыми пользуется общество, перестанут быть надежными. Понадобятся лучшие алгоритмы, чтобы противостоять компьютерам завтрашнего дня. - Такова Цифровая крепость. - Конечно.

Odd man out. -. reflection, neutralisation, refraction, dispersion

Будет очень глупо, если вы этого не сделаете. На этот раз Стратмор позволил себе расхохотаться во весь голос. - Твой сценарий мне понятен. ТРАНСТЕКСТ перегрелся, поэтому откройте двери и отпустите. - Именно так, черт возьми.

 - На его компьютере уже стоял жучок! - Он говорил, стараясь, чтобы его слова были слышны между сигналами.  - Этот жучок вмонтировал кто-то другой, и я подозреваю, что по распоряжению директора Фонтейна. Я просто попал на все готовое.

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