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Can a woman get hiv from a woman

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Helena A. Kwakwa, M. We describe a case of female-to-female transmission of human immunodeficiency virus HIV. A year-old African American woman with no obvious risk factors received a diagnosis of HIV infection, and the genotype of the infecting strain closely matched that of the strain infecting her openly bisexual female partner.

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Vaginal Sex and HIV Risk

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When considering the issue of female-to-female sexual transmission it is important to draw a distinction between the risk of transmission by this route and diagnoses of HIV infection in women who identify as lesbian.

There have been only six reported cases of woman-to-woman sexual transmission, and these reports need to be viewed with the same caution as any other case reports of transmission through oral sex cunnilingus. In the early years of the epidemic, investigations of the source of infection in US women failed to identify any cases of female-to-female transmission.

For example, a follow-up of all women identified as HIV-positive through the blood donation services in the US interviewed women, and identified only three who had had sex with women.

All of these women had other risk factors: either injecting drug use or vaginal intercourse with men Chu. An Italian study of 18 HIV-discordant lesbian couples who had been monogamous partners for at least three months prior to recruitment and who were followed for six months found no seroconversions occurred during this period.

Three-quarters of the couples reported sharing sex toys and virtually all couples reported oral sex Raiteri. In a case report of female-to-female sexual HIV transmission was published. Doctors suggest the woman may have been infected through sharing sex toys after drug-resistance tests found striking similarities between the genotypes of the woman and her female HIV-positive partner Kwakwa.

The case concerns a year-old woman who presented with HIV infection having had a negative HIV test result six months earlier. The woman had been in a monogamous lesbian relationship for the past two years, and denied having had any other sexual partners, male or female.

She had never injected drugs or received blood products, and had no tattoos or body piercings. These activities did not occur during menstruation, but sex toys had occasionally been used vigorously enough to draw blood.

Her bisexual partner was known to be HIV positive, and is believed to be the source of infection because of similarities observed when the two women underwent genotypic drug-resistance tests. The year-old woman was infected with multidrug-resistant HIV. The investigators noted that this is the "first reported case of female-to-female sexual transmission of HIV supported by identification of similar HIV genotypes in the source patient and the recipient".

In , a further case report was published , on this occasion supported by phylogenetic analysis, which showed that the genetic sequences of the viruses infecting the two women were highly related Chan. The report concerns a year-old woman who appears to have acquired HIV during a six-month monogamous HIV serodiscordant sexual relationship with a year-old woman.

She had had a negative antibody test a few weeks before seroconversion illness and diagnosis. Her female partner had been previously diagnosed with HIV but had dropped out of medical care and was not receiving antiretroviral therapy. The newly diagnosed woman had no other recent risk factors for HIV, such as heterosexual intercourse, injecting drug use, or more unusual modes of HIV transmission such as tattooing, acupuncture, transfusion or transplant.

Resistance can be the result of a poor adherence to treatment or of transmission of an already resistant virus. Kissing, licking or sucking another person's genitals, i. An aspect of personal behaviour or lifestyle, an environmental exposure, or a personal characteristic that is thought to be associated with an infection or a medical condition.

The couple reported routinely having unprotected oral and vaginal contact and using insertive sex toys that were shared between them. They described their sexual contact as at times rough to the point of inducing bleeding and contact with menstrual blood.

Chu SY et al. Update: epidemiology of reported cases of AIDS in women who report sex only with other women, United States — AIDS 6: —, Raiteri R et al. No HIV—1 transmission through lesbian sex. Lancet , Kwakwa HA et al. Female-to-female transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Clinical Infectious Diseases E, You can read more about this study in our news report.

Chan SK et al. Likely female-to-female sexual transmission of HIV — Texas Sexual transmission. Primary tabs View active tab Preview. A research briefing. Roger Pebody. July Key points The risk of female-to-female sexual transmission is extremely rare, with only a handful of reported cases. HIV-positive women who identify as lesbian may have acquired HIV through injecting drug use or sex with men. Transmission is possible through sharing of sex toys and exposure to blood during sex. The latest news and research on sexual transmission.

Glossary oral Refers to the mouth, for example a medicine taken by mouth. Next review date. This page was last reviewed in July It is due for review in July Related topics.

The biology of HIV transmission.

HIV and Specific Populations

All A-Z health topics. View all pages in this section. But a woman's risk may be determined by the often unknown behavior of their partner or partners. This can prevent women from recognizing their risk and getting tested. Below are the lifetime risks of getting infected for African-American, Hispanic, and white women in the United States: 3.

When considering the issue of female-to-female sexual transmission it is important to draw a distinction between the risk of transmission by this route and diagnoses of HIV infection in women who identify as lesbian. There have been only six reported cases of woman-to-woman sexual transmission, and these reports need to be viewed with the same caution as any other case reports of transmission through oral sex cunnilingus.

The biologic risk of transmission through female-to-female sex is unknown, but case reports of female-to-female transmission of HIV and the well-documented risk of female-to-male transmission of HIV indicate that vaginal secretions and menstrual blood are potentially infectious and that mucous membrane e. Am J Pub Health ; AIDS ; J Am Med Wom Assoc ;

HIV/AIDS News

Vaginal sex intercourse involves inserting the penis into the vagina. Some sexual activities are riskier than others for getting or transmitting HIV. Activities like oral sex, touching, and kissing carry little to no risk for getting or transmitting HIV. In addition to HIV, a person can get other sexually transmitted diseases STDs like chlamydia and gonorrhea from vaginal sex if condoms are not used correctly. Even if a condom is used, some STDs can still be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact like syphilis or herpes. Hepatitis A and B can also be transmitted through vaginal sex. If one has never had hepatitis A or B, there are vaccines to prevent them. A health care provider can make recommendations about vaccines. Condoms are much less effective when not used consistently. It is also important that sufficient water- or silicone-based lubricant be used during vaginal sex to prevent condom breakage and tearing of tissue.

Women and HIV

Several factors can increase the risk of HIV in women. For example, during vaginal or anal sex, a woman has a greater risk for getting HIV because, in general, receptive sex is riskier than insertive sex. HIV is spread through the blood, pre-seminal fluids, semen, vaginal fluids, rectal fluids, or breast milk of a person who has HIV. Age-related thinning and dryness of the vagina may also increase the risk of HIV in older women.

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Но я рассказал все, как. Точность - мое правило. - И где же это кольцо? - гнул свое Беккер.

Водитель, наверное, снял ногу с педали газа, рев двигателя поутих, и молодые люди поравнялись с автобусом. Шедший сзади, метрах в десяти, Беккер смотрел на них, не веря своим глазам. Фотография внезапно обрела резкость, но он понимал, что увиденное слишком невероятно.

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Наш гражданин был сегодня доставлен в вашу больницу. Я хотел бы получить информацию о нем, с тем чтобы посольство могло оплатить его лечение. - Прекрасно, - прозвучал женский голос.  - Я пошлю эту информацию в посольство в понедельник прямо с утра. - Мне очень важно получить ее именно .

Со всех сторон открывались ворота, и люди вливались в поток. Колокола звонили где-то совсем рядом, очень громко. Беккер чувствовал жжение в боку, но кровотечение прекратилось. Он старался двигаться быстрее, знал, что где-то позади идет человек с пистолетом. Беккер смешался с толпой прихожан и шел с низко опущенной головой.

Discussion. Published data support the conclusion that female-to-female HIV transmission occurs rarely. Several researchers have demonstrated no evidence of  by HA Kwakwa - ‎ - ‎Cited by - ‎Related articles.

ГЛАВА 115 В голове Дэвида Беккера была бесконечная пустота. Я умер. Но я слышу какие-то звуки.

В том, что этот парень был блестящим программистом, сомнений не возникало, но другие обстоятельства тогда казались более важными. Хотя Япония переживала глубокие перемены, Нуматака оставался человеком старой закалки и жил в соответствии с кодексом менбоко - честь и репутация. Если он примет на работу калеку, его компания потеряет лицо.

Рабочим местом Джаббы была платформа, с которой открывался вид на подземную сверхсекретную базу данных АНБ. Именно здесь вирус мог бы причинить наибольший ущерб, и именно здесь Джабба проводил большую часть времени. Однако в данный момент у него был перерыв и он поглощал пирог с сыром и перцем в круглосуточной столовой АНБ.

К началу 1990-х годов ключи имели уже более пятидесяти знаков, в них начали использовать весь алфавит АСКИ - Американского национального стандартного кода для обмена информацией, состоящего из букв, цифр и символов. Число возможных комбинаций приблизилось к 10 в 120-й степени - то есть к единице со 120 нулями.

Беккер наблюдал за ними, чувствуя себя здесь лишним. Они рисовали на разграфленных листах какие-то символы, вглядывались в компьютерные распечатки и постоянно обращались к тексту, точнее - нагромождению букв и цифр, на экране под потолком, 5jHALSFNHKHHHFAF0HHlFGAFFj37WE fiUY0IHQ434JTPWFIAJER0cltfU4. JR4Gl) В конце концов один из них объяснил Беккеру то, что тот уже и сам понял. Эта абракадабра представляла собой зашифрованный текст: за группами букв и цифр прятались слова. Задача дешифровщиков состояла в том, чтобы, изучив его, получить оригинальный, или так называемый открытый, текст.

 - Стратмор внимательно посмотрел не.  - Я должен найти его партнера, прежде чем он узнает о смерти Танкадо. Вот почему я тебя вызвал. Мне нужна твоя помощь. Сьюзан плохо его понимала.

Вероятно, Цифровая крепость - это стандартный алгоритм для общего пользования, тем не менее эти компании не смогут его вскрыть. - Это блистательная рекламная операция, - сказал Стратмор.  - Только подумай - все виды пуленепробиваемого стекла непроницаемы для пуль, но если компания предлагает вам попробовать пробить ее стекло, все хотят это сделать.

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